Neighborhood

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JacksonHeights.nyc map with street names outline.png

On this page we define a neighborhood and seek to define its role in these digital times.

Traditional Neighborhood Definition[edit]

A consensus definition of neighborhood might be the following: A neighborhood is a geographically localized area within a larger city, town, suburb, or rural area. Neighborhoods foster considerable face-to-face interaction among residents via social interactions in personal settings. In neighborhoods residents share values, establish mechanisms for socializing youth and maintaining social boundaries.[1]

Communication: Enabling Community in Neighborhood[edit]

While NYC neighborhoods fit within this scope, the efficacy of neighborhoods in New York City has historically been limited by the lack of meaningful, locally focused, mass media - TV, radio, and newspapers. The following table compares media resources serving two similarly sized geographic areas, our neighborhood and Terre Haute, Indian.

Terre Haute, Indiana Jackson Heights
Population 105,000 100,000
TV Stations 2 0
Daily Newspapers 1 0
Radio Stations 8 0

Today, with a variety of digital media available to residents, most would say that local communication has improved. However, some express concern that the ease of publishing and consequent media plethora, has us drifting too far in another direction.

A foundation goal of the JacksonHeights.nyc Initiative is to serve as a touchpoint for neighborhood communication resources.

Adding Community To The Neighborhood[edit]

Neighborhoods that add to their residents quality of life do so by fostering the development of communities. These communities might be of several types.

  • Action - composed of people trying to bring about social change.
  • Circumstance - people brought together by external events/situations
  • Interest - people who share the same interest or passion.
  • Position - built around life stages: teenage years, university/college student years, marriage, or parenthood...
  • Practice - people in the same profession or undertaking the same activities.

Features and Advantages of Neighborhoods[edit]

Jackson Heights Historic District street sign 1.png

Neighborhoods have several traditional advantages as an arena for social action:

  • Neighborhoods are common, and perhaps close to universal, since most residents consider themselves to be living in one.
  • Neighborhoods are convenient, and always accessible, since you are already in your neighborhood when you walk out your door.
  • Successful neighborhood action frequently requires little specialized technical skill, and often little or no money. Action may call for an investment of time, but material costs are often low.
  • With neighborhood action, compared to activity on larger scales, results are more likely to be visible and quickly forthcoming. The streets are cleaner; the crosswalk is painted; the trees are planted; the festival draws a crowd.
  • Visible and swift results are indicators of success; and since success is reinforcing, the probability of subsequent neighborhood action is increased.
  • Because neighborhood action usually involves others, such actions create or strengthen connections and relationships with other neighbors, leading in turn to a variety of potentially positive effects, often hard to predict.
  • Over and above these community advantages, neighborhood activity may simply be enjoyable and fun for those taking part; and can often tighten security for those partaking in neighborhood watch communities.
  • Considerable research indicates that strong and cohesive neighborhoods and communities are linked—quite possibly causally linked—to decreases in crime, better outcomes for children, and improved physical and mental health. The social support that a strong neighborhood may provide can serve as a buffer against various forms of adversity.

Neighborhoods in the New York City Charter and Administrative Code[edit]

While every New Yorker lives in a neighborhood, the formal role of neighborhoods as viewed by the New York City government is limited. The following details instances where neighborhoods are mentioned in the City Charter and Administrative Code.

Neighborhoods are mentioned 12 times in the New York City Charter[edit]

  1. Chapter 1 Mayor: Section 15. Office of operations. Paragraph c.3. states that "There shall be an office of the language services coordinator within the office of operations." "To perform outreach, in coordination with the office of immigrant affairs or other agencies, in neighborhoods containing a significant number of persons that do not speak any of the languages already covered by most agencies' language access implementation plans, but which might otherwise contain a likely service population, to inquire what agency direct public services, as defined in section 23-1101 of the code, might be used by such persons if services in a language spoken by such persons were available, and collect information therefrom to be shared with the relevant agencies."
  2. Chapter 1 Mayor: Section 16. Report on social indicators and equity. Paragraph b.3. states that "poverty data disaggregated by generally accepted indices of family composition, ethnic and racial groups, age ranges, employment status, and educational background, and by borough for the most recent year for which data is available and by neighborhood for the most recent five year average for which data is available, along with a comparison of this data with such relevant national, regional or other standards or averages as deemed appropriate;"
  3. Chapter 1 Mayor: Section 20-d. Office of nightlife. Nightlife advisory board. Paragraph f.1. states "There shall be a nightlife advisory board to advise the mayor and the council on issues relating to nightlife establishments. The advisory board shall identify and study common issues and trends relating to the nightlife industry and shall make recommendations, as appropriate, to the mayor and the council on ways to improve laws and policies that impact nightlife establishments. The nightlife advisory board shall examine the following: (i) the regulatory structure of the nightlife industry; (ii) common complaints regarding nightlife establishments; (iii) public safety concerns related to the nightlife industry; (iv) the enforcement of nightlife industry-related laws and rules; (v) zoning and other community development concerns related to the nightlife industry; (vi) integration of the nightlife industry into the city’s various neighborhoods; (vii) nightlife workforce conditions, including but not limited to, wages and workforce safety; (viii) the availability and responsiveness of the office of nightlife to the concerns of nightlife establishments; and (ix) any other issues the nightlife advisory board finds are relevant."
  4. Chapter 2-A: Districting Commission: Section 52. District plan; criteria 1.c. "District lines shall keep intact neighborhoods and communities with established ties of common interest and association, whether historical, racial, economic, ethnic, religious or other."
  5. Chapter 21: Department of Parks and Recreation: Section 533. Powers and duties of the commissioner. Paragraph a.11 states "to plan, plant and maintain trees and other plantings and to plan, acquire, design, construct, improve, alter, repair and maintain works of art,* as same are defined in subdivision a of section eight hundred fifty-four of the New York city charter, on or over the streets, avenues, squares, parks, docks, piers or other public places belonging to the city, except as otherwise provided by law; and, subject to the approval of the major, undertake to enter into arrangements with other agencies of the city, state and federal government and recommend to the mayor such arrangements with private, voluntary or commercial agencies, to be entered into subject to the provisions of law, for the performance of functions relating to neighborhood beautification."
  6. Chapter 30: Department of Youth and Community Development: Section 733. Powers and duties. Paragraph a.3. states "to plan for and coordinate neighborhood youth services in conjunction with community boards and youth services planning committees;"
  7. Chapter 61: Department of Housing Preservation and Development: Section 1802. Powers and duties of the commissioner. 3. "all functions of the city, and all powers, rights and duties as provided by any federal, state or local law or resolution, relating to slum clearance, slum prevention and urban renewal; neighborhood conservation; prevention and rehabilitation of blighted, substandard, deteriorated or unsanitary areas, and publicly-aided and public housing, including the regulation of rents in housing built with state or local financing, except housing under the jurisdiction of the New York city housing authority;"
  8. Chapter 61: Department of Housing Preservation and Development: Section 1802. Powers and duties of the commissioner. 6.h. "act as the coordinating agency with respect to the activities of officers and agencies of the city concerning areas designated by the planning commission or any analogous officer or body, as districts for development or improvement of neighborhoods;"
  9. Chapter 66: Department For the Aging: Section 2402. Powers and duties. c. "to cooperate with and assist local neighborhoods in the development of programs and the establishment of local offices;
  10. Chapter 66: Department For the Aging: Section 2403. Advisory council. a. "There shall be in the department an advisory council consisting of thirty-one members at least sixteen of whom shall be recipients of services rendered to the elderly. These members shall include representatives from the areas of social service, health care, the academic community and local neighborhoods."
  11. Chapter 69: Community Districts and Coterminality of Services: Section 2702. Preparation and adoption of map. b. (every 10thh year with 2024 being the next) "The borough presidents, city planning commission, community boards and other civic, community and neighborhood groups and associations shall be consulted and their recommendations considered in the preparation of the preliminary revision of the community district map."
  12. Chapter 70: City Government In the Community: Section 2800. Community boards. a. "For each community district created pursuant to chapter sixty-nine there shall be a community board which shall consist of (1) not more than fifty persons appointed by the borough president for staggered terms of two years, at least one-half of whom shall be appointed from nominees of the council members elected from council districts which include any part of the community district, and (2) all such council members as non-voting members. The number of members appointed on the nomination of each such council member shall be proportional to the share of the district population represented by such council member. The city planning commission, after each council redistricting pursuant to chapter two-A, and after each community redistricting pursuant to section twenty-seven hundred two, shall determine the proportion of the community district's population represented by each council member. Copies of such determinations shall be filed with the appropriate borough president, community board, and council member. One-half of the members appointed to any community board shall serve for a term of two years beginning on the first day of April in each odd-numbered year in which they take office and one half of the members appointed to any community board shall serve for a term of two years beginning on the first day of April in each even-numbered year in which they take office. Members shall serve until their successors are appointed but no member may serve for more than sixty days after the expiration of his or her original term unless reappointed by the borough president. Not more than twenty-five percent of the appointed members shall be city employees. No person shall be appointed to or remain as a member of the board who does not have a residence, business, professional or other significant interest in the district. The borough president shall assure adequate representation from the different geographic sections and neighborhoods within the community district. In making such appointments, the borough president shall consider whether the aggregate of appointments fairly represents all segments of the community. Community boards, civic groups and other community groups and neighborhood associations may submit nominations to the borough president and to council members."

Neighborhoods are mentioned 23 times in the New York City Administrative Code[edit]

  1. Title 3: Chapter 7: Campaign Financing: § 3-702 Definitions. 20. "The term "doing business database" means a computerized database accessible to the board that contains the names of persons who have business dealings with the city; provided, however that for purposes of this chapter the doing business database shall not be required to contain the names of any person whose business dealings with the city are solely of a type for which the board has not certified that such database includes the names of those persons engaged in such type of business dealings with the city. Such database shall be developed, maintained and updated by the office of the mayor in a manner so as to ensure its reasonable accuracy and completeness; provided, however, that in no event shall such database be updated less frequently than once a month. Such computerized database shall contain a function to enable members of the public to determine if a given person is in the database because such person has business dealings with the city and the date a person is considered doing business with the city pursuant to paragraph d of subdivision 18 of this section. A searchable list of persons removed from such computerized database, pursuant to paragraph c of subdivision 18 of this section, within the preceding five years, including the date the persons were considered doing business with the city and the date of removal from such computerized database, shall also be made available on the city’s website. For purposes of this definition, the term "person" shall include an entity that has business dealings with the city, any chief executive officer, chief financial officer and/or chief operating officer of such entity or persons serving in an equivalent capacity, any person employed in a senior managerial capacity regarding such entity, or any person with an interest in such entity which exceeds ten percent of the entity provided, however, that "entity" for purposes of this definition shall not include a neighborhood, community or similar association consisting of local residents or homeowners organized on a non-profit basis where such association is the applicant pursuant to subsection (3) of subdivision (a) of section 197-c of the charter or pursuant to section 201 of the charter or is a parent company or an affiliated company of an entity."
  2. Title 3: Chapter 7: Campaign Financing: § 3-702 Definitions. 21.a. "For purposes of campaigns that accept public funds pursuant to section 3-705 of this chapter, the terms "expenditure" and "campaign expenditure" shall include all payments and liabilities in furtherance of a political campaign for covered office, including, but not limited to, all qualified campaign expenditures and expenditures subject to or exempt from the expenditure limitations of this chapter. There shall be a rebuttable presumption that the following expenditures are in furtherance of a political campaign for elective office; provided, however, that the presumptions contained in this subdivision shall not apply to an expenditure to a person or entity associated with the candidate; and provided further that in rebutting any such presumption the campaign finance board may consider factors including the timing of the expenditure and whether the campaign had an unusually high amount of spending on a particular type of expenditure. For purposes of this subdivision a person or entity associated with a candidate shall include the candidate's spouse, domestic partner, child, parent, or sibling or a person or entity with whom or with which the candidate has a business or other financial relationship: 1. Contributions to charitable organizations designated as 501(c)(3) organizations pursuant to the internal revenue code; 2. Contributions to candidates and political committees subject to the provisions of section 3-705(8); 3. Community events including, but not limited to, events hosted by civic and neighborhood associations; provided, however, that this presumption shall not apply to sporting events, concerts, theater or other entertainment events which shall be subject to the provisions of paragraph"
  3. Title 8: Chapter 2: Certain Unlawful Real Estate Practices § 8-202 Definitions. 9. "Block, neighborhood or area" means any forty square blocks within the city of New York."
  4. Title 8: Chapter 2: Certain Unlawful Real Estate Practices § 8-203 Unlawful real estate practices. 1. It shall be unlawful... "(a) to represent, for the purpose of inducing or discouraging the purchase, sale, or rental, or the listing for purchase, sale, or rental, of any real property, that a change has occurred or will or may occur in the racial or religious composition of any block, neighborhood, or area."
  5. Title 8: Chapter 2: Certain Unlawful Real Estate Practices § 8-203 2. It shall be unlawful... "(a) to make any misrepresentation in connection with the purchase, sale, or rental of any real property, that there will or may be physical deterioration of dwellings in any block, neighborhood or area."
  6. Title 8: Civil Rights Chapter 4: Commission on Human Rights § 8-107 Unlawful discriminatory practices. (3) "To induce or attempt to induce any person to sell or rent any housing accommodation, land or commercial space or an interest therein by representations, explicit or implicit, regarding the entry or prospective entry into the neighborhood or area of a person or persons of any race, creed, color, gender, age, disability, sexual orientation, uniformed service, marital status, partnership status, national origin, alienage or citizenship status, or a person or persons with any lawful source of income, or a person or persons with whom children are, may be or would be residing."
  7. Title 8: Chapter 4: Civil Action To Eliminate Unlawful Discriminatory Practices § 8-401 Legislative declaration. The council finds that certain forms of unlawful discrimination are systemic in nature rooted in the operating conditions or policies of a business or industry. The council finds that the existence of systemic discrimination poses a substantial threat to, and inflicts significant injury upon, the city that is economic, social and moral in character, and is distinct from the injury sustained by individuals as an incident of such discrimination. The council finds that the potential for systemic discrimination exists in all areas of public life and that employment, housing and public accommodations are among the areas in which the economic effects of systemic discrimination are exemplified. The existence of systemic discrimination impedes the optimal efficiency of the labor market by, among other things, causing decisions to employ, promote or discharge persons to be based upon reasons other than qualifications and competence. Such discrimination impedes the optimal efficiency of the housing market and retards private investments in certain neighborhoods by causing decisions to lease or sell housing accommodations to be based upon discriminatory factors and not upon ability and willingness to lease or purchase property. The council finds that the reduction in the efficiency of the labor, housing and commercial markets has a detrimental effect on the city's economy, thereby reducing revenues and increasing costs to the city. The council finds that such economic injury to the city severely diminishes its capacity to meet the needs of those persons living and working in, and visiting, the city. The council finds further that the social and moral consequences of systemic discrimination are similarly injurious to the city in that systemic discrimination polarizes the city's communities, demoralizes its inhabitants and creates disrespect for the law, thereby frustrating the city's efforts to foster mutual respect and tolerance among its inhabitants and to promote a safe and secure environment. The council finds that the potential consequences to the city of this form of discrimination requires that the corporation counsel be expressly given the authority to institute a civil action to enforce the city's human rights law so as to supplement administrative means to prevent or remedy injury to the city.
  8. Title 10: Public Safety: § 10-175 Neighborhood support teams. a. "Definitions. For the purposes of this section, the following terms shall have the following meanings: Coordinating agency. The term "coordinating agency" means the agency designated by the mayor to coordinate and oversee implementation of the requirements of this section. Geographic area. The term "geographic area" means an area no larger than a community district. Quality of life condition. The term "quality of life condition" means a condition that has an adverse effect on the quality of life for residents and visitors in a geographic area, including but not limited to a condition involving sanitation, transportation, social services, public health, or public safety, as determined by the coordinating agency. b. Commencing September 1, 2016, and on or before September 1 annually thereafter, the coordinating agency shall review requests from council members, community boards, business improvement districts, and any other sources as determined by the coordinating agency, and develop a priority list of no less than three geographic areas that the coordinating agency deems would benefit from inter-agency collaboration to address and improve quality of life conditions in such areas. The coordinating agency shall create and execute plans in coordination with the appropriate agencies to address the quality of life conditions in such geographic areas, which shall include but not be limited to visits to such areas and community meetings, provided that such plans in no way restrict any power or authority granted by law to a city agency or officer or employee of any city agency. On March 1, 2017, and annually thereafter, the coordinating agency shall report to the council and make publicly available online a written description of the implementation of such plans."
  9. Title 11: Taxation and Finance: Chapter 2: Real Property Assessment, Taxation and Charges § 11-137 Rent increase exemption programs: ombudspersons, notices and report. c. "Report on Eligibility... Such report shall include: (1) the total number of tenants estimated to be eligible for the rent increase exemption programs, disaggregated by program, enrollment status, borough, and neighborhood;"
  10. Title 11: Taxation and Finance: Chapter 2: Real Property Assessment, Taxation and Charges § 11-243 Reextension of exemption and tax abatement in regard to improvements of substandard dwellings. " (2) In the case of alterations or improvements pursuant to paragraph five of subdivision b of this section which are carried out with the substantial assistance of grants, loans or subsidies from any federal, state or local agency or instrumentality or any not-for-profit philanthropic organization one of whose primary purposes is providing low or moderate income housing or financed with mortgage insurance by the New York city residential mortgage insurance corporation or the state of New York mortgage agency or pursuant to a program established by the federal housing administration for rehabiliation of existing multiple dwellings in a neighborhood strategy area as defined by the United States department of housing and urban development, the abatement of taxes on such property, including the land, shall not exceed the lesser of the actual cost of the alterations or improvements or one hundred fifty per centum of the certified reasonable cost of the alterations or improvements, as determined under regulations of the department of housing preservation and development, and the annual abatement of taxes shall not exceed twelve and one-half per centum of such certified reasonable cost, provided that such abatement shall not be effective for more than twenty years and the annual abatement of taxes in any consecutive twelve-month period shall in no event exceed the amount of taxes payable in such twelve-month period."
  11. Title 11: Taxation and Finance: Chapter 2: Real Property Assessment, Taxation and Charges§ 11-243 Reextension of exemption and tax abatement in regard to improvements of substandard dwellings. (3) "In the case of alterations or improvements carried out with the substantial assistance of grants, loans or subsidies from any federal, state or local agency or instrumentality or any not-for-profit philanthropic organization one of whose primary purposes is providing low or moderate income housing, or financed with mortgage insurance by the New York city residential mortgage insurance corporation or the state of New York mortgage agency or pursuant to a program established by the federal housing administration for rehabilitation of existing multiple dwellings in a neighborhood strategy area as defined by the United States department of housing and urban development where such alterations or improvements are done on property located in census tracts in which seventy-five percent or more of the population live in households which earn fifty percent or less of the median household income of the city, the abatement of taxes on such property, including the land, shall not exceed the lesser of the actual cost of the alterations or improvements or one hundred fifty per centum of the certified reasonable cost of the alterations or improvements, as determined under regulations of the department of housing preservation and development, and the annual abatement of taxes shall not exceed twelve and one-half per centum of such certified reasonable cost, provided that such abatement shall not be effective for more than twenty years and the annual abatement of taxes in any consecutive twelve-month period shall in no event exceed the amount of taxes payable in such twelve month period."
  12. Title 11: Taxation and Finance: Chapter 2: Real Property Assessment, Taxation and Charges § 11-245.1-b Limitations on benefits pursuant to section four hundred twenty-one-a of the real property tax law.* (e) "A new multiple dwelling that is situated in (1) a neighborhood preservation program area as determined by the department of housing preservation and development as of June first, nineteen hundred eighty-five, (2) a neighborhood preservation area as determined by the New York city planning commission as of June first, nineteen hundred eighty-five, (3) an area that was eligible for mortgage insurance provided by the rehabilitation mortgage insurance corporation as of May first, nineteen hundred ninety-two, or (4) an area receiving funding for a neighborhood preservation project pursuant to the neighborhood reinvestment corporation act (42 U.S.C. § 8101, et seq.) as of June first, nineteen hundred eighty-five, shall only be eligible for the benefits available pursuant to subparagraph (iii) of paragraph (a) of subdivision two of section four hundred twenty-one-a of the real property tax law if: "
  13. Title 11: Taxation and Finance: Chapter 2: Real Property Assessment, Taxation and Charges § 11-243 Reextension of exemption and tax abatement in regard to improvements of substandard dwellings. (D) "pursuant to a program established by the federal housing administration, federal national mortgage association, federal home loan mortgage corporation or government national mortgage association for the rehabilitation of existing multiple dwellings for persons of low or moderate income, or a program of mortgage insurance for the rehabilitation of existing multiple dwellings pursuant to section two hundred twenty-three-f of the national housing act as amended, or a program of mortgage insurance established by the federal housing administration for the rehabilitation of existing multiple dwellings for persons of low or moderate income; provided that properties receiving benefits under such programs are located in a neighborhood strategy area, as defined, by the United States department of housing and urban development, or in one of the areas listed in subparagraph (C) of this paragraph." (Subparagraph (C) References Jackson Heights as an eligible area.)
  14. Title 11: Taxation and Finance: Chapter 4: Tax Lien Foreclosure By Action In Rem § 11-412.1 Special procedures relating to final judgment and release of class one and class two real property. (2) "Such third party shall be deemed qualified and shall be designated pursuant to such criteria as are established in rules promulgated by the commissioner of housing preservation and development, provided, however, that such criteria shall include but not be limited to: residential management experience; financial ability; rehabilitation experience; ability to work with government and community organizations; neighborhood ties; and that the commissioner shall consider whether the third party is a responsible legal tenant, not-for-profit organization or neighborhood -based-for-profit individual or organization. The commissioner shall not deem qualified any third party who has been finally adjudicated by a court of competent jurisdiction, within seven years of the date on which such third party would otherwise be deemed qualified, to have violated any section of articles one hundred fifty, one hundred seventy-five, one hundred seventy-six, one hundred eighty, one hundred eighty-five or two hundred of the penal law or any similar laws of another jurisdiction, or who has been suspended or debarred from contracting with the city or any agency of the city pursuant to section 335 of the charter during the period of such suspension or debarment. The rules promulgated by the commissioner pursuant to this paragraph may establish other bases for disqualification of a third party."
  15. Title 14: Police: § 14-148 Uniform allowance for members of auxiliary police. a. "Legislative intent. In the public interest and under the powers granted by the charter to the council to enact legislation for the good and welfare of the citizens of New York, it is the intent of the council by this legislation to attract more men and women to serve as auxiliary police. These men or women are trained by our regular police forces and are similarly uniformed and equipped except that they do not carry guns. The appearance on the streets of many men or women wearing the police uniform, in precincts where auxiliary police are active, has done much to reduce the crime rates in those areas. Auxiliary police serve without pay as civic minded citizens. Their presence in uniform on the streets serves to release regular uniformed police for patrol duty and lessens the neighborhood fear of crime. Auxiliary police patrol in pairs and by radio can summon instant assistance from the regular police should they encounter a situation which they have not been trained to handle. Their presence on the streets makes for good community relations between the citizens and the regular police. It is small repayment for the valuable services they render to provide them with a uniform allowance."
  16. Title 14: Police: § 14-162 Enforcement criteria. a. "Definitions. As used in this section... Neighborhood tabulation area. The term "neighborhood tabulation area" means a geographic area that is no larger than a community district and comprised of two or more census tracts."
  17. Title 14: Police: § 14-162 Enforcement criteria. c. "By November 1 of each year, support service agencies shall report, to the council and a deputy mayor or head of an office or agency designated by the mayor, the current services offered in any neighborhood tabulation area in which 20 percent or greater of the population is below the poverty line as defined by the American Community Survey and that overlaps with or is contiguous to a priority area."
  18. Title 16: Sanitation: Chapter 3: Solid Waste Recycling § 16-305 Recycling of department-managed solid waste. i. "In the event that the department does not meet any recycling percentage goal set forth in paragraphs one or two of subdivision a of this section by the dates specified therein, the department shall, within sixty days of the date for meeting such goal, expand recycling outreach and education and shall take such other appropriate measures including, but not limited to, directing such outreach and education to the neighborhoods and community districts in which recycling diversion rates fall below the median city recycling diversion rate and consulting with the council to explore additional measures to meet the recycling percentage goals set forth in such subdivision. In expanding recycling outreach and education, the department may work with other agencies or entities designated for that purpose by the commissioner."
  19. Title 16: Sanitation: Chapter 3: Solid Waste Recycling § 16-315 Notice, education and research programs. c. "The department shall develop and implement an educational program, in conjunction with the department of education, private schools, labor organizations, businesses, neighborhood organizations, community boards, and other interested and affected parties, and using flyers, print and electronic advertising, public events, promotional activities, public service announcements, and such other techniques as the commissioner determines to be useful, to assure the greatest possible level of compliance with the provisions of this chapter. The educational program shall encourage waste reduction, the reuse of materials, the purchase of recyclable products, and participation in city and private recycling activities."
  20. Title 17: Health: Chapter 1: Department of Health and Mental Hygiene § 17-125 Community air quality surveys and annual report. b. "The department shall conduct a community air quality survey on an annual basis. Such survey shall: 1. Measure pollutants at street-level at monitoring sites across the city of New York over every season of the year, selected to ensure that the number of monitoring sites provides adequate information to assess the range of common emissions sources and neighborhood pollutant concentrations across the city, as determined by the department. At the discretion of the department, data on ozone may be measured in the summer months only and data on sulfur dioxide may be measured in the winter months only; ... 5. Produce maps indicating the varying concentration levels of pollutants across neighborhoods and by pollutant;"
  21. Title 17: Health: Chapter 1: Department of Health and Mental Hygiene § 17-198 Hepatitis B and hepatitis C data compilation and reporting. (iv) "the demographic information, including age, gender, zip code or other neighborhood -level designation, borough and, in cases where data is available, country of birth, of persons infected with hepatitis B and persons infected with hepatitis C; (v) the demographic information, including, to the extent available, age, gender, zip code or other neighborhood -level designation, borough, race, ethnicity and national origin of persons infected with hepatitis B and of persons infected with hepatitis C who receive care or treatment in a program operated or contracted by the department or which receives funding from the council. The department shall also report any such information provided to it by the New York city health and hospitals corporation;"
  22. Title 19: Transportation: Chapter 1: Streets and Sidewalks § 19-157 Pedestrian plazas. d. "Pedestrian plaza events. A plaza activity permit issued by an agency or office designated by the mayor shall be required for any event held completely within a pedestrian plaza. Such agency or office, after consultation with the commissioner and consideration of any input of pedestrian plaza partners, shall promulgate rules: (i) establishing a process for the issuance of such permits, including, but not limited to, rules relating to the submission and processing of applications, approval or denial of applications, an appeals process, and applicable fees; and (ii) pertaining to the management of pedestrian plaza operations during events, including, but not limited to, establishment of paths for pedestrian traffic, establishment of paths and procedures to allow for emergency response access, and procedures related to installations permitted by the department, such as sub-concessions and artwork. Such rules regarding the issuance of plaza activity permits may allow for the evaluation of unique characteristics of the pedestrian plaza in which the proposed event for which the permit is sought and the adjacent neighborhood ; the customary or everyday use of such pedestrian plaza; the nature of the neighborhood adjacent to such pedestrian plaza; the economic and community development impacts of such proposed event; the impact of such proposed event on such pedestrian plaza and the adjacent neighborhood , including, but not limited to, any positive or negative impacts on pedestrian and vehicular traffic in the adjacent neighborhood presented by such proposed event and the impact of cumulative demands on such pedestrian plaza and adjacent streets and public spaces."
  23. Title 19: Transportation: Chapter 1: Streets and Sidewalks § 19-177 Speed Limits; posting of signs; neighborhood slow zones; speed limits near schools. d. (1) "The commissioner shall establish neighborhood slow zones in which speed limits of twenty miles per hour apply on or along designated highways for the purpose of implementing traffic calming measures. The commissioner shall establish not less than seven neighborhood slow zones, which shall contain not less than five blocks per zone, annually in the years 2014 and 2015. For purposes of this subdivision, "traffic calming measures"shall mean any physical engineering measure or measures that reduce the negative effects of motor vehicle use, alter driver behavior and improve conditions for non-motorized street users such as pedestrians and bicyclists. (2) Upon the establishment of neighborhood slow zones pursuant to paragraph 1 of this subdivision, commencing on or before February 1, 2015, and annually thereafter, the commissioner shall provide to the mayor and speaker of the council, and shall post on the department's website, a report listing the location of all neighborhood slow zones. This report shall include, but not be limited to, a review of whether such zones have minimized the risk of traffic crashes, critical injuries or death, and a determination of whether the department shall continue to establish seven neighborhood slow zones annually."

Comment[edit]

That's a whole lot of "mentions." Is there substance upon which we might build a digital infrastructure for our neighborhood? Thomas Lowenhaupt 18:57, 11 December 2017 (UTC)

Neighborhoods in History[edit]

In the words of the urban scholar Lewis Mumford, “Neighborhoods, in some primitive, inchoate fashion exist wherever human beings congregate, in permanent family dwellings; and many of the functions of the city tend to be distributed naturally—that is, without any theoretical preoccupation or political direction—into neighborhoods.” [2]

Most of the earliest cities around the world as excavated by archaeologists have evidence for the presence of social neighborhoods.[3] Historical documents shed light on neighborhood life in numerous historical preindustrial or nonwestern cities.[4]

Neighborhoods are typically generated by social interaction among people living near one another. In this sense they are local social units larger than households not directly under the control of city or state officials. In some preindustrial urban traditions, basic municipal functions such as protection, social regulation of births and marriages, cleaning and upkeep are handled informally by neighborhoods and not by urban governments; this pattern is well documented for historical Islamic cities.[5]

In addition to social neighborhoods, most ancient and historical cities also had administrative districts used by officials for taxation, record-keeping, and social control.[6] Administrative districts are typically larger than neighborhoods and their boundaries may cut across neighborhood divisions. In some cases, however, administrative districts coincided with neighborhoods, leading to a high level of regulation of social life by officials. For example, in the T’ang period Chinese capital city Chang’an, neighborhoods were districts and there were state officials who carefully controlled life and activity at the neighborhood level.[7]

Neighborhoods in preindustrial cities often had some degree of social specialization or differentiation. Ethnic neighborhoods were important in many past cities and remain common in cities today. Economic specialists, including craft producers, merchants, and others, could be concentrated in neighborhoods, and in societies with religious pluralism neighborhoods were often specialized by religion. One factor contributing to neighborhood distinctiveness and social cohesion in past cities was the role of rural to urban migration. This was a continual process in preindustrial cities, and migrants tended to move in with relatives and acquaintances from their rural past.[8]

Neighborhoods and Service Delivery[edit]

Neighborhoods have been the site of service delivery or "service interventions" in part as efforts to provide local, quality services, and to increase the degree of local control and ownership.[9] Alfred Kahn, as early as the mid-1970s, described the "experience, theory and fads" of neighborhood service delivery over the prior decade, including discussion of income transfers and poverty.[10] Neighborhoods, as a core aspect of community, also are the site of services for youth, including children with disabilities[11] and coordinated approaches to low-income populations.[12] While the term neighborhood organisation[13] is not as common in 2015, these organisations often are non-profit, sometimes grassroots or even core funded community development centres or branches.

Neighborhoods and Economic Development[edit]

Economic development activists have pressured for reinvestment in local neighborhoods. In the early 2000s, Community Development Corporations, Rehabilitation Networks, Neighborhood Development Corporations, and Economic Development organizations would work together to address the housing stock and the infrastructures of communities and neighborhoods (e.g., community centers).[14] Community and Economic Development may be understood in different ways, and may involve "faith-based" groups and congregations in cities.[15]

Neighborhoods and Community Research[edit]

Urban sociology even has a subset termed neighborhood sociology which supports the study of local communities [16] and the diversity of urban neighborhoods.[17] Neighbourhoods are also used in research studies from postal codes and health disparities, to correlations with school drop out rates or use of drugs.[18] Central yet today are "community values" which have changed dramatically in larger cities, and sometimes not as much in rural regions of the USA; these values are reflected and shaped in part by the media bridging the gap between citizens and government.[19]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. Wikipedia citing
  2. Mumford, Lewis (1954). The Neighborhood and the Neighborhood Unit. Town Planning Review 24:256–270, p. 258.
  3. For example, Spence, Michael W. (1992) Tlailotlacan, a Zapotec Enclave in Teotihuacan. In Art, Ideology, and the City of Teotihuacan, edited by Janet C. Berlo, pp. 59–88. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, D.C. Stone, Elizabeth C. (1987) Nippur Neighbourhoods. Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization vol. 44. Oriental Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago
  4. Some examples: Heng, Chye Kiang (1999) Cities of Aristocrats and Bureaucrats: The Development of Medieval Chinese Cityscapes. University of Hawai'i Press, Honolulu. Marcus, Abraham (1989) The Middle East on the Eve of Modernity: Aleppo in the Eighteenth Century. Columbia University Press, New York. Smail, Daniel Lord (2000). Imaginary Cartographies: Possession and Identity in Late Medieval Marseille. Cornell University Press, Ithaca.
  5. Abu-Lughod, Janet L. (1987) The Islamic City: Historic Myth, Islamic Essence, and Contemporary Relevance. International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 19:155–176.
  6. Dickinson, Robert E. (1961) The West European City: A Geographical Interpretation. Routledge & Paul, London, p. 529. See also: Jacobs, Jane (1961) The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Random House, New York, p. 117.
  7. Xiong, Victor Cunrui (2000) Sui-Tang Chang'an: A Study in the Urban History of Medieval China. Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
  8. Kemper, Robert V. (1977) Migration and Adaptation: Tzintzuntzan Peasants in Mexico City. Sage Publications, Beverly Hills. Greenshields, T. H. (1980) "Quarters" and Ethnicity. In The Changing Middle Eastern City, edited by G. H. Blake and R. I. Lawless, pp. 120–140. Croom Helm, London.
  9. King, B. & Meyers, J. (1996). The Annie E. Casey Foundation's mental health initiative for urban children. (pp. 249-261). In: B. Stroul & R.M. Friedman, Children's Mental Health. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
  10. Kahn, A.J. (1976). Service delivery at the neighborhood level: Experience, theory and fads. Social Service Review, 50(1): 23-56.
  11. Kutash, K., Duchnowski, A.J., Meyers, J. & King, B. (1997). Ch. 3: Community and neighborhood-based services for youth. In: S. Henggeler & A. B. Santor, Innovative Approaches to Difficult to Treat Populations. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
  12. Riessman, F. (1967). A neighborhood-based mental health approach. (pp.1620184). In: E. Cowen, E. Gardier, & M. Zak, Emergent Approaches to Mental Health Problems. NY, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
  13. Cunningham, J V. & Kotler, M. (1983). Building Neighborhood Organizations. Notre Dame & London: Notre Dame Press.
  14. Rubin, H.J. (2000). Renewing Hope Within Neighborhoods of Despair: The Community-Based Development Model. Albany, NY: State University of New York.
  15. Mc Roberts, O.M. (2001, January/February). Black Churches, community and development. Shelterforce Online. Washington, DC: Author. at http://www.nhi.org/online/issues/115/McRoberts.html
  16. Wellman, B. & Leighton, B. (1979, March). Networks, neighborhoods and communities: Approaches to the study of the community question. Urban Affairs Quarterly, 14(3): 363-390.
  17. Warren, D. (1977). The functional diversity of urban neighborhoods. Urban Affairs Quarterly, 13(2): 151-180.
  18. Overman, H.G. (2002). Neighborhood effects in large and small neighborhoods. Urban Studies, 39(1): 117-130.
  19. Glaser, M.A., Parker, L. E., & Payton, S. (2001). The paradox between comm neigh is a ma ka bpsda ma ke chut ke unity and self-interest: Local government, neighborhoods, and media. Journal of Urban Affairs, 23(1): 87-102.

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